L. R. Penna, LL., M., LL. B., and B. Com., from the Osmania University, and LL. M. from Stanford University, USA, is an Associate Professor at the Faculty of Law of the National University of Singapore (Kent Ridge, Singapore 0410) having joined that University in 1984, on lien of service from the Osmania University, Hyderabad, India, where had been the Professor of Law, and Principal of the University College of Law, and in continuous teaching service since 1960. He was a Visiting Professor at the Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C. and President of the All India Law Teachers Association. He is presently a member of the Academic Commission for the Development of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights of the International Institute of Humanitarian Law, San Remo, Italy. He has over 70 publications, several of which are notable in the field of humanitarian law.